Thanks for all the advice, I'm currently looking into buying this airbrush:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQLJnD2mWMY (don't mind the crappy intro)
It should be able to do anything I want to do with it, comes with 2 different needle/nozze combinations in the extended version and is relatively affordable, similar to the patriot.
For the compressor (which is a real struggle) I'm currently trying to find a good second hand brand compressor, since I don't trust the chinese ones. Money-wise I've settled with spending more than I initially wanted in favor of a higher quality product. The whole thing will probably cost me ~300$ all things included.